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Referencing: creating footnotes and bibliographies in the Chicago style,

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Chicago essentials


  • SIA students must follow this latest version of the Chicago Manual when formatting footnotes and bibliographies;

  • access the Chicago Manual of Style (17th edition) here;

  • the Manual offers two options. SIA students must use the footnote-bibliography style and not the author-date style. Footnotes must be used, not endnotes;

  • the Manual includes sample citations to follow, for both footnotes and bibliography. These models include examples of longer footnotes, which you generally do not need to use - please see below;

  • shortened footnotes can be used throughout each assignment, except in the case of assignments which have no bibliography. While the Chicago Manual gives numerous examples of longer footnotes,  you can therefore ignore these for most assignments. See Chicago's guidance on shortened footnotes and when you can use even shorter footnotes. SIA policy is that you should not use the convention ibid, even though Chicago leaves some room for personal choice here.



More about Chicago

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The Manual is also available in book form, on the library ground floor at QUI.WRI.CHI.  Another useful guide in book form is Kate Turabian's A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations: Chicago Style for Students and Researchers.  This is also available at QUI.WRI.CHI.